Arabic basic verbs (أفعال أساسية)

Arabic basic verbs (أفعال أساسية)

 

English Standard Arabic Transliteration Egyptian Arabic Transliteration
to be (not used in present tense) كان – يكون (كون) kaana – yakuunu (koon) kaan – yikuun (koon)
to do; to make فعل – يفعل (فعل) fa3ala – yaf3alu (fa3l) عمل – يعمل 3amal – yi3mil (3amal)
to work عمل – يعمل (عمل) 3amala – ya3milu (3amal) اشتغل – يشتغل (سغل) ištaġal – yištaġil (šuġl)
to bring, fetch أحضر – يحضر (احضار) aHDara – yuHDiru (iHDaar) جاب – يجيب (جيبان) gaab – yigiib (gayabaan)
to take أخذ – يأخذ (أخذ) axada – ya’xudu (axd) خد – ياخد (اخد) xad – yaaxud (axd)
to put وضع – يضع (وضع) waDa3a – yaDa3u (waD3) حطّ – يحطّ (حطّ) HaTT – yiHoTT (HaTT)
to become أصبح – يصبح (اصباح) aSbaHa – yuSbiHu (iSbaaH) بقى – يبقى ba’a – yib’a
to change (s.t.) غيّر – يغيّر (تغيير) ġayyara – yuġayyiru (taġyiir) ġayyar – yiġayyar (taġyiir)
to count عدّ – يعدّ (عدّ) 3adda – ya3uddu (3add) 3add – yi3idd (3add)
to go (to) ذهب – يذهب (ذهاب) إلى dahaba – yadhabu (dahaab) ila راح – يروح (مرواح | روحان) raaH – yiruuH (mirwaaH/rawaHaan)
to walk مشى – يمشي (مشي) maša – yamši (mašy) مشي – يمشي (مشي) miši – yimši (mašy)
to run جرى – يجري (جري) jara – yajri (jary) geri – yigri (gary)
to come جاء – يجئ (جيئة) jaa’a – yajii’u (jii’a) جه – يجي (مجي) geh – yiigi (migiyy)
أتى – يأتي (اتي) ata – yaa’ti (aty)
to return رجع – يرجع (رجوع) إلى raja3a – yarja3u (rujuu3) rigi3 – yirga3 (ruguu3)
عاد – يعود (عودة) إلى 3aada – ya3uudu (3awda)
to arrive وصل – يصل (وصول) إلى waSala – yaSilu (wuSuul) ila وصل – يوصل (وصول) wiSil – yiwSil (wuSuul)
to sit جلس – يجلس (جلوس) jalasa – yajlisu (juluus) قعد – يقعد (قعاد) ‘a3ad – yu’3ud (‘u3aad)
to get up, rise قام – يقوم (قيام) qaama – yaquumu (qiyaam) ‘aam – yi’uum (‘iyaam)
to fall وقع – يقع (وقوع) waqa3a – yaqa3u (wuquu3) وقع – يوقع (وقوع) wi’i3 – yiw’a3 (wu’uu3)
سقط – يسقط (سقوط) saqaTa – yasquTu (suquuT)
to go up طلع – يطلع (طلوع) Tala3a – yaTla3u (Tuluu3) Tili3 – yiTla3 (Tuluu3)
to go down نزل – ينزل (نزول) nazila – yanzilu (nuzuul) nizil – yinzil (nuzuul)
to cook طبخ – يطبخ (طبخ) Tabaxa – yaTbuxu (Tabx) Tabax – yiTbux (Tabx)
to eat أكل – يأكل (أكل) akala – yaa’kulu (akl) كل – ياكل (أكل) kal – yaakul (akl)
to drink شرب – يشرب (شرب) šariba – yašrabu (šurb) širib – yišrab (šurb)
to wake up صحى – يصحو (صحو) SaHa – yaSHu (SaHw) صحي – يصحى (صحو) SaHa – yiSHa (SaHw)
استيقظ – يستيقظ (استيقاظ) istayqaZa – yastayqiZu (istiiqaaZ)
to sleep نام – ينام (نوم) naama – yanaamu (nawm) naam – yinaam (noom)
to wash غسل – يغسل (غسل) ġasala – yaġsilu (ġasl) ġasal – yiġsil (ġasl/ġasiil)
to clean نظّف – ينظّف (تنظيف) naZZafa – yunaZZifu (tanZiif) naZZaf – yinaZZaf (tanZiif)
to study درس – يدرس (دراسة) darasa – yadrusu (diraasa) daras – yidris (diraasa)
to learn تعلّم – يتعلّم (تعلّم) ta3allama – yata3allamu (ta3allum) اتعلّم – يتعلّم (تعلّم) it3allim – yit3allim (ta3allum)
to understand فهم – يفهم (فهم) fahima – yafhamu (fahm) fihim – yifham (fahm)
to know عرف – يعرف (معرفة) 3arafa – ya3rifu (ma3rifa) 3irif – yi3raf (ma3rifa)
to remember تذكر – يتذكر (تذكر) tadakkara – yatadakkaru (tadakkur) افتكر – يفتكر (افتكار) iftakar – yiftikir (iftikaar)
to forget نسي – ينسى (نسي) nasiya – yansaa (nasi) nisi – yinsa (nasi)
to describe وصف – يصف (وصف) waSafa – yaSifu (waSf) وصف – يوصف (وصف) waSaf – yiwSif (waSf)
to try, test (s.t) جرّب – يجرّب (تجريب) jarraba – yujarribu (tajriib) garrab – yigarrib (tagriib)
to try, attempt to do s.t. حاول – يحاول (محاولة) أن Haawala – yuHaawilu (muHaawala) an
to be able to do s.t. قدر – يقدر (قدرة) أن qadara – yaqdiru (qudra) an ‘idir – yi’dir (‘odra)
استطاع – يستطيع (استطاعة) أن istaTaa3a – yastaTii3u (istiTaa3a) an
to read قرأ – يقرأ (قراءة) qara’a – yaqra’ (qiraa’a) قرأ – يقرأ (قراية) ‘ara – yi’ra (‘iraaya)
to write كتب – يكتب (كتابة) kataba – yaktubu (kitaaba) katab – yiktib (kitaaba)
to translate ترجم – يترجم (ترجمة) tarjama – yutarjimu (tarjama) targam – yitargim (targama)
to talk (reflexive) تكلّم – يتكلّم (كلام | تكلّم) takallama – yatakallamu (kalaam/takallum) اتكلّم – يتكلّم (كلام) itkallim – yitkallim (kalaam)
تحدّث – يتحدّث (تحدّث) taHaddata – yataHaddatu (taHaddut)
to say, tell قال – يقول (قول) qaala – yaquulu (qawl) ‘aal – yi’uul (‘awl)
to ask (a question) سأل – يسأل (سؤال) sa’ala – yas’alu (su’aal)
to request طلب – يطلب (طلب) Talaba – yaTlubu (Talab)
to reply, answer (to) أجاب – يجيب (اجابة) على ajaaba – yujiibu (ijaaba) 3ala agaab – yigiib (igaaba) 3ala
ردّ – يردّ (ردّ) على radda – yarudd (radd) 3ala
to thank شكر – يشكر (شكر) šakara – yaškuru (šukr) šakar – yiškur (šukr)
to complain (about) شكى – يشكو (شكوى) من šaka – yašku (šakwa) min اشتكى – يشتكي (شكوى) من ištaka – yištiki (šakwa) min
to promise وعد – يعد (وعد) بـ wa3ada – ya3idu (wa3d) bi وعد – يوعد (وعد) wa3ad – yiw3id (wa3d) bi
to see رأى – يرى (رؤية) ra’a – yara (ru’ya) شاف – يشوف (شوفان | شوف) šaaf – yišuuf (šawafaan/šoof)
to look at نظر – ينظر (نظر) إلى naZara – yanZuru (naZar) ila بصّ – يبصّ (بصّ | بصصان) على baSS – yibuSS (baSS/baSaSaan) 3ala
to look for بحث – يبحث (بحث) عن baHata – yabHatu (baHt) 3an دوّر – يدوّر (تدوير) على dawwar – yidawwar (tadwiir) 3ala
to find وجد – يجد (وجود) wajada – yajidu (wujuud) لاقى – يلاقي laa’a – yilaa’i (la’ayaan)
to lose (s.t.) ضيّع – يضيّع (تضييع) Dayya3a – yuDayyi3u (taDyii3)
to organize نظّم – ينظّم (تنظيم) naZZama – yunaZZimu (tanZiim)
to organize, tidy up رتّب – يرتّب (ترتيب) rattaba – yurattibu (tartiib)
to smoke (in general) دخّن – يدخّن (تدخين) daxxana – yudaxxinu (tadxiin)
to happen حدث – يحدث (حدوث) Hadata – yaHdutu (Huduut) حصل – يحصل (حصول) HaSal – yiHSal (HuSuul)
to watch شاهد – يشاهد (مشاهدة) šaahada – yušaahidu (mušaahada) اتفرّج – يتفرّج على itfarrag – yitfarrag 3ala
to hear سمع – يسمع (سمع | سماعة) sami3a – yasma3u (sam3/samaa3a) simi3 – yisma3 (sama3)
to listen to استمع – يستمع (استماع) إلى istama3a – yastami3u (istimaa3) ila سمع – يسمع (سمع) simi3 – yisma3 (sama3)
to give أعطى – يعطي (اعطاء) a3aTa – ya3aTi (i3Taa’) ادّى – يدّي (مدّية) idda – yiddi (middiyya)
to carry حمل – يحمل (حمل) Hamala – yaHmilu (Haml) شال – يشيل (شيل | شيلان) šaal – yišiil (šeil/šayalaan)
to love أحبّ – يحبّ (حبّ) aHabba – yuHibbu (Hubb) حبّ – يحبّ (حبّ) Habb – yiHibb (Hubb)
to hate كره – يكره (كره | كراهة) kariha – yakrahu (karh/karaaha) karah – yikrah (karh/karaaha)
to be born وُلد – يُولد (ولادة) wulida – yuuladu (wilaada) اتولد – يتولد itwalad – yitwalad
to live عاش – يعيش (معيشة) 3aaša – ya3iišu (ma3iiša)
to live (in a place) سكن – يسكن (سكن) في sakana – yaskunu (sakan) fi
to die مات – يموت (موت) maata – yamuutu (moot)
to pass away توفّي – يتوفي (وفاة) tuwuffiya – yutawaffayu (wafaah) اتوفى – يتوفي (وفاة) itwaffa – yitwaffi (wafaah)
to wait انتظر – ينتظر (انتظار) intaZara – yantaZiru (intiZaar) استنى – يستني istinna – yistinni
to buy اشترى – يشتري (شراء) ištara – yaštari (širaa’) ištara – yištiri
to sell باع – يبيع (بيع) baa3a – yabii3u (bii3)
to pay; to push دفع – يدفع (دفع) dafa3a – yadfa3u (daf3) dafa3 – yidfa3
to push زق – يزق (زق) za” – yizu” (za”)
to open (s.t.) فتح – يفتح (فتح) fataHa – yaftaHu (fatH) fataH – yiftaH (fatH)
to close (s.t.) غلق – يغلق (غلق) ġalaqa – yaġliqu (ġalq) قفل – يقفل ‘afal – yi’fil
to begin, start (s.t.) بدأ – يبدأ (بدء) bada’a – yabda’u (bad’) bada’ – yibda’
to end (reflexive) انتهى – ينتهي (انتهاء) intaha – yantahi (intihaa’)
to stop (reflexive); to stand up وقف – يقف (وقف | وقوف) waqafa – yaqifu (waqf/wuquuf) wi’if – yiw’af (wa’f)
to finish (s.t.) خلّص – يخلّص (تخليص) xallaSa – yuxalliSu (taxliiS) xallaS – yixallaS (taxliiS)
شطّب – يشطّب (تشطيب) šaTTab – yišaTTab (tašTiib)
to stop (reflexive); to stand up وقف – يقف (وقف | وقوف) waqafa – yaqifu (waqf/wuquuf) wi’if – yiw’af (wa’f)
to play لعب – يلعب (لعب) la3aba – yal3ibu (li3b)
to use (s.t.) استخدم – يستخدم (استخدام) istaxdama – yastaxdimu (istixdaam)
استعمل – يستعمل (استعمال) ista3mala – yasta3milu (isti3maal)
to enter دخل – يدخل (دخول) daxala – yadxulu (duxuul) daxal – yudxul
to go out خرج – يخرج (خروج) xaraja – yaxruju (xuruuj) xarag – yixrag
to leave غادر – يغادر (مغادرة) ġaadara – yuġaadiru (muġaadara) ساب – يسيب saab – yisiib
to ride (ex. a taxi) ركب – يركب (ركوب) rakiba – yarkabu (rukuub) rikib – yirkab
to send أرسل – يرسل (ارسال) arsala – yursilu (irsaal) بعت – يبعت ba3at – yib3at
to receive استلم – يستلم (استلام) istalama – yastalimu (istilaam) istalam – yistilim (istilaam)
to think (about s.t.) فكّر – يفكّر (تفكير) fakkara – yufakkiru (tafkiir) fakkar – yifakkar (tafkiir) fi
to think (that) ظنّ – يظنّ (ظن) أن Zanna – yaZunnu (Zann) anna افتكر – يفتكر iftakar – yiftikir
to believe (that) اعتقد – يعتقد (اعتقاد) i3taqada – ya3taqidu (i3tiqaad) anna
to need (s.t.) احتاج – يحتاج (احتياج) إلى iHtaaja – yaHtaaju (iHtiyaaj) ila iHtaag – yiHtaag
to want (to) أراد – يريد (ارادة) araada – yuriidu (iraada) an عايز – عايزة 3aayiz/3aayza (or 3aawiz/3aawza) – active participle
to succeed نجح – ينجح (نجاح) najaHa – yanjaHu (najaaH) nagaH – yingaH (nagaaH)
to fail فشل – يفشل (فشل) fašila – yafšalu (fašal)

The Holy Quran

The Quran is the sacred book of the Muslims, it is the word of God (Allah) revealed to his prophet Muhammad (peace and prayers of Allah be upon him) through the angel Jibril. This revelation has lasted 23 years.

The Quran is the heart of Islam, it includes all the teachings and precepts of the religion, for every Muslim it’s the divine symbol of faith. The Holy Book is also considered as a miracle in itself because of its content and scope, which is extended to all possible areas and continues to fascinate scientists for its extraordinary advance over time.

The Quran has 114 chapters called suwar. The first one is called Al Fatiha (the opening). Each sura is composed of phrases or verses called “ayat”. The longest sura is the “Al Baqara” , it has 286 ayas.

A part of the Quran was revealed to the Prophet (peace and prayers of Allah be upon him) in the city of Mecca and the other in the city of Medina, that is why we find a classification of the suwar in the Quran by Makiya and Madaniya, in fact by place of revelation.

Quran Reading with Tajwid

Literally, ‘tajwid‘ means improvement and perfection. If you do something with tajwid it means you are trying to do it with the utmost quality and in the most perfect way possible. The term is technically used to refer to the science concerned with correct recitation and pronunciation of the Qur’anic words and verses. The relationship is clear between the literal meaning of the word and its technical usage; the literal meaning revolves around perfecting an action or a performance, which is the recitation of the Qur’an as far as the science of Tajwid is concerned.

After the rapid spread of Islam in its early centuries, especially among non-Arabs, Muslim scholars deemed it necessary to put down a set of rules that serve as a reference for the Qur’an learners. So, Tajwid has been the reference for people who wished to recite the Qur’an in a correct manner. This, however, does not deny the fact that the Qur’an cannot be learned independently, without the assistance of a skilled teacher. The unique isnad-based system of learning Qur’an continued to be the recognized way for teaching students how to recite the Qur’an and for training them on Tajwid. In the isnad-based system, a student recites the whole Qur’an by heart, from the beginning to the end, fulfilling the rules of Tajwid to a certified Qur’an teacher, and then the student is certified by the teacher to be qualified to recite and teach the Qur’an. The certificate is called ijazah (license). A typical ijazah lists the teachers of the granting sheikh (the isnad or sanad , an unbroken chain of teachers that goes back to the Prophet).

Tajwid, according to the scholars’ definition, is all about “articulating (the sound of) each letter from its proper point of articulation, and ensuring the correct pronunciation of the genuine characteristics of each sound as well as the occasional ones.” Here, by ‘genuine’ scholars mean the permanent features of a sound without which the sound is never pronounced correctly. The occasional features are those affecting a letter sound due to certain occasional reasons such as the place of the letter in a word, its tashkil, the features of the letters coming before or after it, etc.

A typical Tajwid book starts with an introduction clarifying the significance and manners of reciting the Qur’an, the prerequisites of a correct recitation, the Islamic ruling of observing Tajwid when reciting the Qur’an and the types of recitation in terms of speed. The main body of Tajwid, as clearly stated in the above definition, is concerned with the correct pronunciation of the Qur’an. This is dealt with in the following basic topics:

  1. Points of articulation (Makharij Al-Huruf)
  2. Letters Characteristics (Sifat Al-Huruf)
  3. Other rules of Tajwid related to the sound changes of certain letters due to their places in the word or their surrounding letters, such as the rules of a non-vowel N and M (ahkam an-Nun wal mim as-sakinah) and the types of long vowels (mudud.)

Students of phonetics will find the above topics familiar and similar to what they study. The concept of idgham, for example, is similar to that of assimilation as far as the phonetics is concerned.

It is obligatory, according to the scholars of Tajwid, to observe its rules when reciting the Qur’an. Allah Almighty said, {…recite the Qur’an (aloud) in a slow, (pleasant tone and) style} (Al-Muzzamil 73: 4)

The verse means reciting the Qur’an slowly with humility (khushu`) and reflection observing the rules of Tajwid such as lengthening the long vowels (madd al-mamudud) and shortening the short ones (qasr al-maqsur)… The command in the above verse indicates obligation as this is the original usage of the imperative form. There is nothing here to indicate otherwise. (Al-Marsafi, Hidayat Al-Qari’ ila Tajwid Kalam al-Bari)

Imam ibn Al-Jazari, one of the earliest scholars of Tajwid, maintained in his Tuhfatul-Atfal, a famous beginner-style Tajwid manual, that,

It is incumbent to observe the rules of Tajwid; those who fail to do so are incurring a sin because the Qur’an was revealed by Allah and transmitted to us with the rule s of Tajwid.

Some scholars, however, hold that it is recommended (mustahab) to follow the rules of Tajwid rather than being wajib(obligatory), as long as the words are pronounced correctly in terms of Arabic and no mistakes are involved of course. Nevertheless, it befits a Muslim to try his best to perfect his recitation. `A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

The one who is proficient in the recitation of the Qur’an will be with the honorable, obedient scribes (angles), and he who recites the Qur’an with difficulty and find it hard to recite will have a double reward. (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Tajwid is just one of the manifestations of Allah’s protection for the Qur’an from any kinds of corruption. Going through books of the Tajwid shows the extreme care given to the minute details of the pronunciation of the Qur’an. All of this is to ensure that the way the Qur’an is recited fourteen centuries after the demise of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is exactly the same as how the Prophet recited the Qur’an. Besides, the isnad-based transmission of the Qur’an guarantees that the rules of Tajwid are fully put into practice in a way that ensures the highest quality and accuracy level when transmitting the Qur’an from one generation to another. Tajwid, after all, is one of a group of sciences created initially to serve the Qur’an and to guard it from corruption such as the Qira’at (science of the recitation versions) and the scripting of the Qur’an (ar-rasm wad-dabt.)

By Muhammad Fathi